Assignment Grant Proposal – Topic, Specific Aims And Bibliography

Assignment Grant Proposal – Topic, Specific Aims And Bibliography

Assignment Grant Proposal – Topic, Specific Aims And Bibliography

TOPIC: Resources and Help for Adults Living with a Brain Injury

Only the Specific Aims… I am doing the bibliography

EXAMPLE: Sample Grant Proposal Template

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Running Head: EFFECTS OF TRAINING ON COGNITION

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EFFECTS OF TRAINING ON COGNITION

[Type over the sample text in this document to create your Grant Proposal. Delete these instructions before submitting your proposal.]

Effects of Internet Based Training on Cognition in Older Adults

Student A. Smith

PSY625: Biological Bases of Behavior

Instructor B. Jones, PhD.

September 19, 2014

Effects of Internet Based Training on Cognition in Older Adults

Specific Aims

The idea that maintaining high levels of cognitive activity protects the brain from neurodegeneration is not new, and much evidence has accumulated that people with high levels of cognitive ability and activity tend to maintain cognitive function well as they age (Hertzog et al. 2009). Beyond the idea of maintaining cognitive function in healthy aging, studies such as Verghese et al. (2003) found that higher levels of cognitive activity were associated with lower rates of dementia in a 21- year longitudinal study. While much of the data indicating higher levels of cognitive activity leads to better long-term function is necessarily correlational, a number of studies have begun to systematically assess the effect of cognitive interventions on cognitive function. The largest of these, the Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly (ACTIVE; Jobe et al. 2001) has found long lasting effects (5 years; Willis et al. 2006) of relatively short cognitive training activities (10 hours). Assignment Grant Proposal – Topic, Specific Aims And Bibliography

The specific aim of this proposal is to assess the effectiveness of A Fictitious Brain Training Program on research participants followed longitudinally who may be experiencing the very earliest signs of cognitive decline. Recent research tracking the trajectory of age related cognitive decline (e.g., Mungas et al. 2010) has suggested that it may be possible to identify cognitively healthy individuals at risk for significant imminent cognitive decline by examining baseline cognitive assessments or recent change, even though test scores do not reach the abnormal range. Assignment Grant Proposal – Topic, Specific Aims And Bibliography

Background

Techniques for maintaining and enhancing cognitive function in an increasingly aging population are of great potential benefit to those who might suffer from Alzheimer’s disease and related disorders and also to society as a whole. Higher cognitive function leads to better maintenance of activities of daily life, less need for chronic care, and direct improvements in quality of life. Research examining effective methods for cognitive enhancement is becoming increasingly prevalent and has led to a number of recent review studies, e.g., Hertzog et al. (2009), Lustig et al. (2009), Green & Bavalier (2008). These studies review evidence from both longitudinal studies of increased levels of mental activity on maintenance of cognitive function and intervention studies aimed at directly improving cognition with targeted cognitive training. For these cognitive interventions to provide widespread benefit, it is critical to identify who will gain from cognitive intervention studies and to assess methods of administering effective cognitive training.

In a large scale cognitive intervention study (ACTIVE), Ball et al. (2002) found that training increased cognitive function with as little as 10 hours of task-specific training and these gains were still evident 5 years later (Willis et al. 2006). However, none of the three types of training used in that study were found to generalize to the other types of cognitive function. Participants were trained on either verbal episodic memory, reasoning (pattern identification), or speed-of-processing (visual search skills). Gains were observed in the domain of training, but not on the other two domains. As noted by Salthouse (2006), this result is inconsistent with the strongest form of the “use it or lose it” hypothesis. However, it does hold promise for cognitive training interventions that train broadly across a wide variety of domains. The hypotheses implied by the “use it or lose it” hypothesis is that cognitive training is protective broadly against the cognitive decline associated with aging. The more commonly observed specific areas of training improvement suggest an analogy to physical fitness training: the brain should not be thought of as a single “muscle” to be strengthened but as a collection of individual abilities that could each be improved through “exercise.” In addition, the analogy could be extended to the idea that cognitive training “exercise” should be thought of as an activity to be engaged in on a regular basis, not as a single intervention.

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