Gestalt psychology

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1- To simplify Gestalt psychology to a single statement, one might say this school of thought is concerned with the whole rather than parts. Gestalt psychologists studied how sensation differs from perception, and also how “insight learning” seemed to differ from trial-and-error learning (Köhler, 1959). Remember that we are discussing Gestalt psychology, and not Gestalt therapy, in these questions.

Respond to one of the following:

Discuss the idea of “wholeness” from a Gestalt perspective, using either human perception or human learning to provide at least two examples that show the importance of the whole.
Was Gestalt psychology in accord with behaviorism? What might a discussion between a Gestaltist and a behaviorist sound like about a topic such as consciousness or learning?

2Theories in Fairness

In this week’s readings from your Psychological Testing and Assessment text, you read about misconceptions regarding test bias and test fairness—two terms that are often incorrectly considered synonymous. While questions regarding test bias have been addressed through technical means, issues with test fairness are tied to values. The text attempts to define test fairness in a psychometric context and provides eight techniques for preventing or remedying adverse impacts on one or another group. One of these techniques included differential cutoffs. Furthermore, you were introduced to a variety of methods for setting cut scores. These methods have been based on either CTT or IRT.

For this discussion, synthesize the information you learned about these two theories and their respective methods. In your post, be sure to follow the guidelines below:

Determine which one is preferential for responding to questions about a test’s fairness.
Identify at least two advantages and two disadvantages in using each theory.
Defend your preference in terms of the methods used within each theory and how they apply to concepts of fairness across groups. Essentially, how does it best address test fairness?
Describe how advances in technology are improving the process of test development and inclusion of appropriate items.

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