NUR641E Topic 7: Neurological, Musculoskeletal, And Integumentary System: Selected Pathophysiology And Pharmacologic Therapy

NUR641E Topic 7: Neurological, Musculoskeletal, And Integumentary System: Selected Pathophysiology And Pharmacologic Therapy

NUR641E Topic 7: Neurological, Musculoskeletal, And Integumentary System: Selected Pathophysiology And Pharmacologic Therapy

Topic 7 DQ 1

Apr 14-16, 2022

Choose a medical condition from the neurological, musculoskeletal, or integumentary system and explain the pathophysiology changes that may occur. What patient education would need to be included related to this disorder? Make sure that you select a different medical condition than your peers. Include the name of the medical condition in the subject line so that the medical condition can be followed. Include your references in APA style.




Nicole Santos

Posted Date

Apr 18, 2022, 9:26 PM


Replies to Nicole


Alopecia areata is an autoimmune condition where the body attacks its hair follicles, causing hair loss anywhere on the body. The hair loss typically occurs in circular patches that may overlap. It is important to educate the patient on the root cause of their diagnosis and their treatment options available to them. It is also important to educate proper diet of 0.8 grams of protein per kilogram of body weight and discontinuing medications that may affect hair growth. You can also offer support and counseling to help with coping with hair loss. Suggesting various styling techniques and hair colors can also help in reducing the appearance of thinning hair volume and assist with coping. 


Hair loss types: Alopecia areata overview. American Academy of Dermatology. (2022). Retrieved April 18, 2022, from

Mims. (n.d.). Alopecia patient education. MIMS Malaysia. Retrieved April 18, 2022, from


  • LH

Topic 7 DQ 2

Apr 14-18, 2022

Select a medication used in evidence-based treatment guidelines for the condition chosen in the first discussion question. Share the mechanism of action of this medication and hints for monitoring, side effects, and drug interactions of which one should be aware. Make sure that you select a different medication than your peers. Include the name of the medication in the subject line so that the medications can be followed. Include your references in APA style.



Nicole Santos

Posted Date

Apr 18, 2022, 9:47 PM


Replies to Nicole 


Minoxidil, or more commonly known as Rogaine, is a well known treatment for alopecia areata. Minoxidil helps increase blood supply and nutrients to the hair follicles, helping to strengthen existing hair follicles and promoting hair growth. Some common side effects of minoxidil are irritation, eczema, abnormal hair growth on the body, redness at application site, burning, worsening hair loss. It is cautioned that one minoxidil is used, it should be used indefinitely, with apparent hair growth within a minimum of four months; avoid contact with scalp once it is applied as it can easily be rubbed off; may experience change in hair color; avoid in patients with heart issues; avoid contact with eyes.


Goren, A., Naccarato, T., Situm, M., Kovacevic, M., Lotti, T., & McCoy, J. (2017). Mechanism of action of minoxidil in the treatment of androgenetic alopecia is likely mediated by mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate synthase-induced stem cell differentiation. Journal of biological regulators and homeostatic agents, 31(4), 1049–1053.


Posted Date

Apr 18, 2022, 9:16 PM


Replies to Nicole

Levodopa (L-Dopa)

Levodopa is a dopamine precursor; it is beneficial for controlling bradykinetic symptoms associated with Parkinson’s disease (PD) and improving the quality of life in people with idiopathic PD (Gandhi KR, 2021). Levodopa may halt the course of Parkinson’s disease or provide further advantages long after the medicine is stopped.

Mechanism of Action

Levodopa is converted to dopamine in both the CNS and the periphery. Inhibitors of dopamine decarboxylase prevent Levodopa from being converted to dopamine in the periphery, allowing more Levodopa to penetrate the Blood-Brain Barrier (Gandhi KR, 2021). Once converted to dopamine, it acts on postsynaptic dopaminergic receptors, compensating for the loss of endogenous dopamine.

Hints for monitoring

Individuals using Levodopa must regularly monitor their BUN, creatinine, and hepatic function (Gandhi KR, 2021). A healthy liver is critical for people on Levodopa since it is the site of decarboxylation. When a person has glaucoma, it is also essential to check their intraocular pressure to ensure it is safe. Before and while taking Levodopa, it is also vital to check for peripheral neuropathy to see if it will worsen. Patients should also have their dyskinesia checked regularly. Therefore, it is crucial to watch patients who take dopaminergic medications for psychotic behavior and hallucinations. Hallucinations can happen when people are confused or have many dreams.

Side effects

Taking Levodopa’s most common side effects are nausea, dizziness, headache, and sleepiness. Typical side effects for older people who take Levodopa are confusion, hallucinations, delusions, psychosis, and agitation.

Drug interactions

Levodopa is contraindicated when monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are used concurrently, as this might result in a hypertensive crisis (Gandhi KR, 2021). However, when transitioning from Levodopa to an MAOI or vice versa, a 14-day washout period should be observed. Patients using D2 antagonists may decrease the effects of Levodopa, which may lessen the drug’s positive benefits (Gandhi KR, 2021).


Gandhi KR, S. A. (2021, April 30). Levodopa (L-dopa) – StatPearls – NCBI bookshelf. National Center for Biotechnology Information.

Topic 7: Neurological, Musculoskeletal, And Integumentary System: Selected Pathophysiology And Pharmacologic Therapy

Apr 14-20, 2022

Max Points:30


  1. Describe normal pathophysiology and alterations in the pathophysiology of neurological disorders, musculoskeletal, and integumentary system disorders.
  2. Integrate knowledge of pathophysiology and pharmacology into teaching and educational materials in diverse settings.
  3. Describe a pharmacological intervention using an evidence-based treatment guideline.
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