Summarize current research to better understand the role of the nervous system in the disease/disorder

Summarize current research to better understand the role of the nervous system in the disease/disorder

Summarize current research to better understand the role of the nervous system in the disease/disorder

(please retain and use the 4 articles being referenced for intext and reference citations along with any of your own scholorly references)

The purpose of this assignment is to COMPLETE a paper that will:

  1. Identify the biological basis of a disease or disorder of the nervous system >>>>>(Bell’s palsy) <<<<
  2. Summarize current research to better understand the role of the nervous system in the disease/disorder Summarize current research to better understand the role of the nervous system in the disease/disorder

The final paper should showcase your best work in synthesizing and applying information about the biological basis of behavior, as well as your writing skills. An example paper from a former student is available to provide a strong example of this assignment (see the attachment below). 

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Please complete the following this week:

  1. After re-reading your research summaries and feedback, write an introduction to your final paper that will introduce your reader to research the topic, and preview the types of research summaries you will include. You may also want to use additional sources to cite important statistics about the disease/disorder or describe important symptoms or treatments that may be relevant.
  2. Revise your research summaries by re-reading to correct any confusing sections typos, mistakes or omissions. Integrate any feedback you received. (don’t worry I got %100 on my summaries),  Add transition sentences to guide your reader through the summaries.
  3. Write a conclusion that summarize the main points of your paper. Then, interpret the research you read as a whole. Possible things to consider in your conclusion: What main themes emerged? What differences/discrepancies/controversies emerged? What gaps still exist in the research (what is still unknown about the biological basis)? What new discoveries have been made?
  4. After you have completed your paper, write an abstract. The abstract should be a mini-preview of the upcoming paper. A basic format for an abstract could include a sentence (or two) introducing the topic, a sentence summarizing the kinds of research the reader will encounter in your paper, and a sentence (or two) about the conclusion of the paper. (You’ll want to have your paper fairly complete before writing your abstract. Once the paper is complete or close to complete, it will be a lot easier to pull out these key pieces of information and assemble the abstract.) Summarize current research to better understand the role of the nervous system in the disease/disorder
  5. Use APA format for your writing. This assignment should be approximately 6 pages long (not including a cover page and references page) in APA format (12 point font, double-spaced, 1″ margins). Additional information about APA format is available HEREAn MSWord document that is pre-formatted to APA format is available for you to use (see the attachment below).  Please use this template to help ensure that most elements of APA format will be already included in your assignment, making it a lot easier to produce a high-quality, professionally formatted assignment. 🙂

YOU ARE ESSENTIALLY WRITING AN ABSTRACT, INTRODUCTION & CONCLUSION with filler information to make up the extra pages. There are 4 full page summaries already. SO you just need 2 more full pages including the abstract page.

>> Review attachments being with “Sem assignment one”<<

THANK YOU!!!

  • attachmentPSY301EXAMPLEPAPER.docx
  • attachmentResearchSummaries-Sem.docx
  • attachmentSemassignmentone-2.docx

Running Head: THE BIOLOGY OF BIPOLAR DISORDER 1

THE BIOLOGY OF BIPOLAR DISORDER 5

The Biology of Bipolar Disorder

A Former Student

PSYC 301

Abstract

Bipolar disorder is a devastating mental health condition caused by a dysfunction of the nervous system. Symptoms of this condition are episodes of mania followed by episodes of depression. Research has been conducted to investigate the causes of this condition and have identified several hormones and structures of the brain that are involved in the bipolar disorder. Researchers have identified that hormones included in the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and gonads has an impact on these patients. It has also been observed that the frontal lobe is affected in patients with bipolar disorder. Patients with bipolar disorder have been classified based on their cognitive profiles, and these profiles have been compared to their brain activity. Existing and continued research will help to gain a greater understanding of these patients in order to create more effective treatment plans.

The Biology of Bipolar Disorder

Bipolar disorder is a spectrum of mood disorders that affects 60 million people globally (Gooding et al., 2019). The effects of bipolar disorder can be devastating for the individual and those around them due to the symptoms of this disorder (Ritchie & Roser, 2018). Symptoms include episodes of mania, or a “high” and elated mood, followed by episodes of depression (Moore, 2013). These episodes can last for weeks or months without intervention or treatment. Bipolar disorder is a destructive disease caused by the disfunction of the nervous system, several different parts of the brain, and multiple different hormones.

During the manic episodes of bipolar disorder, individuals may experience an increase in mood, self-esteem, and irritability. They may experience grandiosity or believing they can accomplish anything. They may also experience psychotic symptoms including paranoia and hallucinations. These episodes are followed by episodes of a low or depressed mood, feelings of worthlessness, reduction in motivation or energy, and suicidal thoughts (Moore, 2013).

Bipolar disorder has different classifications that are divided by severity. Bipolar I disorder is the most severe and is classified by the frequency of hospitalizations and the impairment in functioning caused by the symptoms. Bipolar II disorder is a milder form of the disorder and individuals with this classification experience “hypomania”, which is a less severe form of mania (Moore, 2013). Both classifications of bipolar disorder are associated with the highest rate of suicide of all psychiatric disorders (Gooding et al., 2019).

Several studies have been conducted to explore the biological causes of bipolar disorder. Research supports that this disorder is caused by an impairment in hormonal function and the disfunction of electrical impulses as identified by EEG, and activity in different parts of the brain as identified by MRI. This research provides valuable data allowing insight to the bipolar brain, equipping practitioners to more successfully treat and understand bipolar patients.

In the study of neuroendocrine hormones in patients with major depressive disorder, Feng et al. (2019) tested the hypothesis that there is a negative correlation between the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis and the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis in patients with major depressive disorder, but there is no correlation in patients with bipolar disorder. This study also sought to evaluate the differences between the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA), HPT, and HPG axes in patients with major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder (Feng et al., 2019). Ultimately, the study sought to evaluate how the three neuroendocrine pathways are related to each other in patients with affective disorders.

The study was conducted on two groups: a group with major depressive disorder and a group with bipolar disorder. Both groups were evaluated for the following hormone levels in their blood: thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), triiodothyronine (T3), free triiodothyronine (FT3), thyroxine (T4), free thyroxine (FT4), cortisol (COR), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), estradiol (E2), and testosterone (T). Only female patients were evaluated for E2 levels, and only male patients were evaluated for T levels (Feng et al., 2019).

The participants of this study were 679 patients with major depressive disorder and 83 patients with bipolar disorder, composed of 263 male participants and 416 female participants with major depressive disorder, and 39 male participants and 44 female participants with bipolar disorder. The mean age for participants with major depression was 31.4 years and the mean age for participants with bipolar disorder was 24.8 years. The illness duration for participants with major depression was 1.56 and 3.87 for participants with bipolar disorder (Feng et al., 2019).

Participants were evaluated for current mood state using the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety, and Young Mania Rating Scale. All participants were hospitalized overnight, and blood collection was performed the following morning between 8 a.m. and 9 p.m. Alprazolam was the only medication administered to the patients to treat insomnia from hospitalization (Feng et al., 2019).

The results of this study demonstrated that participants with major depression had a hyperactivity of the HPA axis and lower activity of the HPT axis when compared to participants with bipolar disorder. Participants with bipolar disorder were found to have reduced testosterone secretion, indicating lower activity of the HPG axis. This study also discovered that ACTH, FT3 and FT4 may potentially mark severity and symptoms of untreated major depression. This study did not support the hypothesis that there is a negative correlation between the HPG and HPT axes (Feng et al., 2019).

This study provided important information about the interaction of hormones within the brain of the bipolar patient. It also displayed the differences between two closely related but psychologically different affective disorders. This research clarified the parts of the endocrine system that are associated with this disorder and provided insight about the parts of the brain that these hormones affect in individuals with affective disorders.

Other studies have performed more in depth research regarding the function of the parts of the brain that are affected by bipolar disorder. In a study of alpha and gamma activity in patients with affective disorders, Kim, Oh, Jeon, Hong and Baek (2019) investigated the differences in the neurobiological characteristics of the ADHD symptoms that are often displayed in patients with major depression and bipolar disorder. This study sought to measure the neurological activity of these patients in order to gain greater understanding of the relation of these symptoms.

There were four groups of participants being evaluated, separated into groups of individuals with major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder type I, bipolar disorder type II, and bipolar disorder not otherwise specified (Kim et al., 2019). These conditions were being compared against each other and evaluated based on their ADHD symptoms.

As the study sought to evaluate dimensional characteristics of ADHD rather than those clinically diagnosed with ADHD, participants who met full DSM criteria for ADHD were excluded. All participants were aged between 18 and 45 and were currently in a depressive episode based on DSM criteria. Participants who were currently in a manic or mixed state were excluded. A total of 67 subjects were evaluated: 48 with major depression, 8 with bipolar disorder type I, 13 with bipolar disorder type II, and 8 with bipolar disorder not otherwise specified. 9 participants had psychotic features (Kim et al., 2019).

The methods used to evaluate symptoms and mood state were Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, Adult ADHD self-report scales, Hamilton rating scale for depression, Hamilton rating scale for anxiety, and mood disorder questionnaire. All participants underwent EEG following evaluation (Kim et al., 2019).

This study demonstrated that participants with major depression and ADHD symptoms had greater powers of alpha waves in both frontal regions, while ADHD symptoms in bipolar disorder showed association with right frontal gamma power. The patterns of correlation between ADHD symptoms and frontal qEEG measures were different between participants with major depression and bipolar disorder. The study was also able to determine a weak association with hyperactivity and right frontal gamma activity in participants with bipolar disorder (Kim et al., 2019).

This research is important because it demonstrates the difference between two related conditions, major depression and bipolar disorder, and how the electrical energy in the brain differs between these two conditions. It also demonstrates how the symptoms of ADHD can overlap these conditions and can make differentiating between the two difficult. This research provided useful information about the affected parts of the brain that can be used in conjunction with other research in order to produce a greater understanding of the bipolar brain.

Subsequent research has been able to further identify the parts of the brain impacted by bipolar disorder and classify these individuals on cognition and associated brain activity. In a study of patients with bipolar disorder type I, Kollmann, Yuen, Scholz and Wessa (2019) investigated the different cognitive profiles of these patients and evaluated the underlying neuronal network changes. This study hypothesized that patients with bipolar disorder type I often display cognitive profiles that can be divided into different categories, rather than grouped and applied widespread to all patients with bipolar disorder.

This study compared a group of participants with bipolar disorder type I and compared these participants to a control group. The study aimed to compare the cognitive and behavioral abilities and deficits in these two groups, in order to separate them into three categories of cognitive profiles. Each cognitive profile would then undergo FMRI to evaluate the activity of the brain correlating with these characteristics (Kollmann, et al., 2019).

The study evaluated 54 participants with bipolar disorder type I and compared with 54 control participants matched for gender, age and IQ. Control participants were excluded if they had any psychiatric or neurological disorders, if they had a first degree relative with bipolar disorder, or substance abuse for 3 months prior to testing. Bipolar participants were required to have a stable mood on day of testing and on medication for 2 months prior to testing. All participants were aged between 18 and 60 years (Kollmann, et al., 2019).

The Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery, Cambridge Gambling Task, Stop Signal Task, Intra-Extra Dimensional Set Shift, Stockings of Cambridge, Multiple-Choice Word Vocabulary Test, structured clinical interview and questionnaire related to general functioning was used to evaluate mood states and cognitive capabilities of participants. All patients underwent FMRI after evaluation (Kollmann, et al., 2019).

After testing, this study was able to group participants into three different cluster categories relating to their cognitive functions. Cluster 1 was defined by difficulty with adaptation to changing demands, Cluster 2 was defined by impulsivity and Cluster 3 was characterized by superior ability to strategize and excellent visuospatial planning skills. These differences in cognitive abilities and deficits were reflected by activity recorded by FMRI. This study was also able to demonstrate that cognitive differences observed in individuals with bipolar disorder are not always negative and can be beneficial to the bipolar individual (Kollmann, et al., 2019).

This research is important because it demonstrates how different brain activity causes bipolar disorder to be a multi-dimensional affective disorder. It demonstrates the importance in slight brain changes in the symptomology of the patient and explains what parts of the brain are affected in individuals with bipolar disorder.

In conclusion, it can be observed that bipolar disorder is a multi-dimensional disorder, affecting many parts of the brain and endocrine system. Bipolar disorder varies from patient to patient depending on what parts of the brain are being affected, but research supports that this variation is consistent among groups. As research is continually conducted on this disorder, greater understanding is gained on how this devastating mental illness can be most effectively treated, and how these patients can find relief.

References

Feng, G., Kang, C., Yuan, J., Zhang, Y., Wei, Y., Xu, L., … Yang, J. (2019). Neuroendocrine abnormalities associated with untreated first episode patients with major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 107, 119–123.

Gooding, D. C., Wolford, K., & Gooding, D. C. (2019). Bipolar disorder. Salem Press Encyclopedia of Health.

Kim, J. S., Oh, S., Jeon, H. J., Hong, K. S., & Baek, J. H. (2019). Resting-state alpha and gamma activity in affective disorder with ADHD symptoms: Comparison between bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 143, 57–63.

Kollmann, B., Yuen, K., Scholz, V., & Wessa, M. (2019). Cognitive variability in bipolar I disorder: A cluster-analytic approach informed by resting-state dataNeuropharmacology, 156, 1–14.

Moore, N. B. (2013). Bipolar Disorder : Symptoms, Management and Risk Factors. Hauppauge, New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc.

Ritchie, H. and Roser, M. (2018, April). Mental health. Our World in Data. Retrieved from org/mental-health” target=”_blank” rel=”noreferrer noopener”>https://ourworldindata.org/mental-health

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